This image is a work of a U.S. military or Department of Defense employee, taken or made as part of that person’s official duties. As a work of the U.S. federal. This page contains the US Army Field Manual on Survivability. FM Survivability on the modern battlefield, then, depends on progressive development of fighting and protective positions. That is, the field survivability.

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Improvised braces are wedged across the excavation, at or near floor level, between two opposite pickets.

Then, the Maximum Span table shows that support of the Vk feet of cover using 2 by 4 roof stringers over a 4-foot span requires inch center-to-center spacing of the 2 by 4s. For example, while engineer assistance may be necessary to build steel frames and cut timbers for the roof of survivabilkty structure, the excavation, assembly, and installation are all within the capabilities of most units. Additional details on wall design are given in FM These shelters are usually not larger than person shelters.

FM Survivability :: Military Publications – Field Manuals – USAHEC

Fuel-air munitions create large area loading on a structure as compared to localized loadings caused by an equal weight high explosive FM charge. The screen initiates detonation at a distance where only fragments reach the structure. Anchor wires are tightened by further twisting. Inspects fighting and survivabilit positions for structural soundness.


If a projectile partially penetrates concrete shielding, particles and chunks of concrete often break or scab off the back of the shield at the time of impact.

Careful planning and diligent work will enhance our ability to survive. The best shelter is usually one that provides the most protection but requires the least amount of effort to construct. Engineer support isrsqwired for fabrication arc installation. Furthermore, at least two entrances are necessary for ventilation.

They are employed as protective positions and used to connect individual holes, weapons positions, and shelters.

When construction of a positions begins, natural materials such as vegetation, rotting leaves, scrub brush, and snow are preserved for use as camouflage when construction is completed. In the tunnel system shown, the soil was generally very hard and only the entrances were timbered. As a general rule, they are excavated deeper than fighting positions to survivabilitu movement without exposure to enemy fire.

Once the dose is known, initial radiation effects on personnel are determined from the table below. Combat support aviation units can quickly move towed field artillery units and other lighter combined arms team elements as the commander dictates. Steel is also more likely to deform a projectile as it penetrates, and is much less likely to span than concrete. Designers of protective structures should select the proper material and design exposed surfaces with the maximum angle from the perpendicular to the direction of fire.

The Enemy The maneuver commander and engineer must fully understand the threat to the force.


Excessive clearing is prevented in order to reduce early enemy acquisition of the position. Fighting bunkers are enlarged fighting positions designed for squad-size units or larger. Also, a large portion of the company is habitually employed away from the company area providing contact teams to supported units.

During construction, adequate frontal and perimeter protection and observation are necessary. Using these factors in a vulnerability analysis will show the maneuver commander and the engineer which maneuver, field artillery, and ADA units require the most survivability support.

Dedicated engineer support is a requirement for the construction of a firebase. The maneuver commander must prioritize the construction of overhead cover for command, control, and supply positions. The following AirLand battle conditions will shape our protection and survivability efforts: A continuous brush revetment is constructed in place.

Also, heavy equipment tracks and impressions are disguised upon completion 5–103 construction.


The available assets are applied to each original course of action in a manner best suited to the METT-T factors and the survivability analysis. MachJ nd qjoW tfofiti Ofl M. Their fire degrades the effectiveness of enemy strike and reconnaissance aircraft by forcing the enemy to evade friendly air defense. Also, a low structure silhouette design makes a structure harder to engage with direct fire.